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Another reason why scrutiny might be assumed to be higher in more prestigious journals is that readership is higher, leading to more potential for error detection. More eyes are more likely to detect potential errors. The consequence of this reasonable and plausible factor is difficult to test empirically. However, one could make a more easily testable, analogous claim, such as that one would also expect increased readership to lead to a higher potential not only for retractions but also for citations. More eyes are more likely to detect a finding worth citing. In fact, if anything, citations ought to correlate better with journal rank than retractions because citing an article in a leading journal is not only technically easier than forcing a retraction, it also benefits one’s own research by elevating the perceived importance of one’s own field. However, the opposite is the case: The coefficient of determination for citations with journal rank currently lies around 0.2, while that coefficient comes to lie at just under 0.8 for retractions and journal rank ( FOOTWEAR Espadrilles Sebastian Quality For Sale Free Shipping Explore Cheap Online mX5WbhEyGG
). So while there may be a small effect of scrutiny/motivation, the evidence seems to suggest that it is a relatively minor effect, if there is one at all.

Taken together, there is currently no strong case to be made as to whether the likely increased scrutiny and readership of highly-ranked journals is a major factor driving retractions or not. If that were the case, it would indicate that the apparent increased unreliability in high-ranking journals is merely an artifact of the increased scrutiny to retract, combined with an increased willingness of these journals to correct the scientific record. At least two lines of inquiry did not turn up any conclusive evidence for such an argument. With such unclarified confounds in such a tiny section of the literature, it is straightforward to disregard retractions as extreme outliers and focus instead of the 99.95% of unretracted articles in order to estimate the reliability of highly ranked journals.

In the literature covering unretracted, peer-reviewed articles, one can identify at least eight lines of evidence suggesting that articles published in higher ranking journals are methodologically either not stronger or, indeed, weaker than those in lower ranking journals. In contrast, there is no evidence that articles published in higher ranking journals are methodologically stronger. Methodology here refers to several measures of experimental and statistical rigor with a potential bearing on subsequent replication or re-use. There is currently one article with evidence that higher ranking journals are better at detecting duplicated images ( Bik et al., 2016 ).

In the following, I will quickly review the lines of evidence in the order of decreasing evidential strength.

The quality of computer models of molecular structures, derived from crystallographic work, can be quantified by a method which includes the deviations from known atomic distances and other factors ( Brown and Ramaswamy, 2007 ). Averaging the quality metric for each journal, high-ranking journals such as Cell , Molecular Cell , Nature, EMBO Journal and Science publish significantly substandard structures (Figure 1 , courtesy of Dr. Ramaswamy, methods in Brown and Ramaswamy, 2007 ). The molecular complexity or the difficulty of the crystallographic work cannot explain this finding, as these factors are incorporated in the computation of the quality metric.

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Now that you have analyzed all your data – from your survey, interviews, desk research and potentially other sources – you can create your final product.

Create your final product

Your final product will be the document that will summarize, analyze and criticize your data. That will be the piece that you will share with your community to present and explain your research to your audience.

At AWID, we often write a comprehensive written report that analyzes each set of data and synthesizes all of our findings, then later create smaller products, such as infographics and summaries (explained in the subsequent section “ Finalize and format ”).

1. Write clearly

2. Make it pretty

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Gather review inputs

At this point, you have collected all your data, analyzed it and transformed it into your final product, likely in a long report.

1. Polish your results

Before moving on to the next steps – you should share your final research product with your advisor organizations, activists, and donors.

This is a great moment to check the following points:

Once you have inputted all feedback from your advisors, be sure to run it by your editor once more.

This will now be the final, completed version of your report. If you intend to publish the final report in other languages, now is the time to send it for translation.

2. Facilitate the feedback

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Previous step

6. Conduct desk research

Next step

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In this section:

Importance of the editor

An editor will proofread, ensure concise writing, conduct fact-checking, point out inconsistencies that need to be resolved, arrange the flow of the document and possibly suggest titles.

Your editor should preferably be someone who understands and knows your WITM work but who was not directly involved in the research. This will bring in a fresh perspective.

Use the data collected to create graphs and tables. These type of visuals are a compelling way to highlight the main findings of your research and validate your analysis.

Source relevant images that can illustrate your report.

Highlight key-numbers and/or powerful testimonials.

I recently pulled a muscle in the middle of my lower back. Shortly after my ring finger, and pinky as well as the right side of my palm (sometimes my forearm as well) will randomly tingle and just feel weak. Could the two be associated, or is it a completely different issue?

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I don’t think that one would be directly related to the other, but maybe there could be an indirect effect? If you were using the arm to rub your back after the back sprain, this could irritate the ulnar nerve in the hand, particularly if you were bending your elbow repetitively.

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Sheldon Schoberg says

i woke up with a numbness in my thumb and index finger and from there it lead up my arm to where my arm bends but only on a portion of my arm like a thick line. what do i do?

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I would keep the elbow relatively straight. Don’t let it bend to end range, particularly when you sleep. I would also keep the wrist from flexing more than 20 degrees or so. I would make an appointment to go see the doc to have it checked out.


Joe says

Hi Dan,

I slid head first into second base and jammed my hand on the bag. It’s been about 11 weeks. The fingers seem to function fine but I can’t bend my hand on the “creases” on the inner Palm. My main area of stiffness and discomfort, not pain is located in the ring finger knuckle and the pinkie knuckle isn’t really visible when making a fist.

They took a series of x rays after the incident and it’s all clear. I’m waiting to see if there gonna send me to an orthopedic doctor but haven’t heard back. Any idea what I could have done to it and any healing suggestions?

Not sure if this helps but It either jammed the fingers head on with the bag or at an angle. All the fingers and both sides of the hand swelled badly. The Palm got discolored for about 2 days. That’s the spot where I still can’t bend it. Thanks.


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